- Andreu N, Zelmer A, Wiles S (2011). Non-invasive biophotonic imaging for studies of infectious disease. FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 35(2):360-394. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6976.2010.00252.x.
This is a pretty comprehensive review article on biophotonic imaging. It covers the technology (from getting microbes to generate a bioluminescent/fluorescent signal, the different instruments available for imaging, and the factors which influence sensitivity) and illustrates how the technique is being applied in infectious diseases research.
- Andreu N, Zelmer A, Fletcher T, Elkington PT, Ward TH, Ripoll J, Parish T, Bancroft GJ, Schaible UE, Robertson BD, Wiles S (2010). Optimisation of Bioluminescent Reporters for Use with Mycobacteria. PLOS One. 5(5): e10777. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010777.
In this paper we describe the testing of three different luciferases (luc, Gluc & lux) in Mycobacteria. This was the first description of the expression of the whole lux operon in these organisms. We optimised gene copy number, ribosomal binding sites, promoters and codon usage to find the best bioluminescent signal.
- Wiles S, Robertson BD, Frankel G, Kerton A (2009). Bioluminescent monitoring of in vivo colonization and clearance dynamics by light-emitting bacteria. In Methods in Molecular Biology, Bioluminescence: Methods and Protocols (2nd Edition). 574:137-153. PB Rich & C Douillet (Eds). Published by Springer.
This book chapter describes those important bits of the methods that tend to be glossed over in the Materials & Methods sections of imaging papers. We cover the preparation, shelf life and administration of anaesthetics and substrates (luciferin and coelenterazine), as well as the correct needles to use and maximum doses to administer, depending on the route.
- Wiles S, Hanage WP, Frankel G, Robertson BD (2006). Modeling infectious disease – time to think outside the box? Nature Reviews Microbiology 4:307-312.
In this opinion piece we discuss some of the limitations of using animals to model human infections and how these might be overcome. Naturally we cover adapting infection models to include transmission where possible, and the concept of hyper- and hypo- infectivity.
- Wiles S, Dougan G, Frankel G (2005). Emergence of a ‘hyperinfectious’ bacterial state after passage of Citrobacter rodentium through the host gastrointestinal tract. Cellular Microbiology 7:1163-1172.
This paper describes the finding that C. rodentium, a bacterium which infects the gastrointestinal tracts of mice in a similar way to certain strains of E. coli in humans, is more infectious when it exits from an infected mouse than when it is grown in laboratory medium. We also describe the natural transmission of C. rodentium from infected to uninfected animals, which forms the basis of our ‘Evolution in Action’ experiments.